Dumbo octopus spotted at 22,800 feet
All octopuses are venomous, injecting toxins into their bodies to dominate and kill their prey. where do they live? There are about 300 species of octopus, and they are found in every ocean of the world, even in the cold waters around Antarctica. A special substance in their blood helps cold water species obtain oxygen. Due to this their blood also turns blue. You can also find octopuses at different depths. Some are found on warm tropical reefs a few feet below the water surface. Others live in the deep sea, practically in the dark. The deepest species found is the dumbo octopus, which is seen down to 22,800 feet—that’s more than 4 miles (about 7 kilometers).
How smart are they? Octopuses are the head of all the species in their class. They are among the smartest invertebrates on Earth. They have nine brains – a small brain in each hand and the other in the center of their body. Each hand can move independently, taste or touch an object, but all hands can work together when prompted by the central brain. Octopuses make good use of their brains. They can solve mazes and puzzles, especially when the reward is food. Sometimes they even outwit people: At the New Zealand National Aquarium, Inky jumps out of his tank through a drain pipe and escapes to the ocean. How do they change colour? Octopuses are experts at disguising themselves so that they can blend in with their surroundings. One way to do this is to change the color.
Mimic Octopus Particularly Clever
Special cells, called chromatophores, receive signals from the brain to tighten muscles to show more color, or loosen them to show less. Blue, green, pink, gray – they change themselves to these colors and other colors to hide from predators, attract mates and warn enemies to stay away. Some species also change the texture of their skin, making it smooth or bumpy, so they can camouflage themselves in rocks and foliage. Some secrete an ink-like substance when encountered by predators such as sharks, which gives the octopus enough time to swim safely away. The mimic octopus is particularly clever. It moves its arms exclusively to imitate other marine animals.
For example, if he wants to appear fierce, he spreads out his black and white striped arms to look like a venomous sea snake. Or it flattens itself along the ocean floor, the arm next to its body, to look like a venomous flattened fish. Octopus in danger In front of humans, an octopus is non-aggressive – as long as you give them space, like you would any other marine animal. Although octopuses have ways of evading predators, they remain at risk from other threats: chemical pollutants, marine debris, habitat loss and climate change. But we humans can all help them in some way. This includes learning to cut carbon emissions and use less plastic. Doing these things will help octopuses and other sea creatures not only survive, but also thrive.
Erin Spencer and Yanis Papastamatiu, Florida International University